• A closer look into the Development Aspect of Telangana as a Region

    Posted on March 21, 2012 by in Indian Politics

    PREFACE:

    This report is a sincere attempt to get the facts straight to all of us. This is not intended to support or oppose anyone. All of us have to realize the existence of the problem. If everyone first acknowledges the problem, next step is to understand it. Once the problem is thoroughly understood, everyone can find ways to solve it. Any problem can be solved with peace and harmony. If majority of the people are not recognizing the very “Existence” of a problem, there will not be any solution.

    Separate Telangana movement is not new; this movement exists for more than 4 decades now, in one or the other form. Though the movement became a political agenda again in the recent decade or so, there have always been grievances from the people. Exchange of words, arguments and counter arguments have increased in the recent times. Majority of the people expressing opinion are doing so, without getting into facts.

    This whole report is based on the report by Center for Economic and Social Studies (CESS). All the statistics presented here are the intellectual property of CESS only. Due credit goes to the people who worked on that report

    1. Introduction:

    This report is based on the Human Development Report, submitted to the Government of Andhra Pradesh, by Center for Economic and Social Studies (CESS). This report is aimed to show the existence of regional imbalances in Human Development.

    Most of the data in CESS report was from early 1990s to early 2000s. Since, this is from a recent decade, after Economic Reforms, and after better infrastructure and communication establishments, it is a very good indicator of the disparities that exist in the development of the different

    CESS took each district as a unit in their data collection and different statistical calculations. Since the arguments are based on the regions (Telangana, Andhra and Rayalaseema), I have taken each region as a unit. I have computed each value in simple averaging method. Telangana consists of 10 districts, so I averaged each value for those 10 districts. Similarly, for 9 districts in Andhra and 4 districts in Rayalaseema regions. Though, the current arguments are between Telangana and Seemandhra, I have separated 3 regions in my analysis. Because major arguments are between Andhra & Telangana and I am not surewhat Rayalaseema representatives want? Sometimes, they want a united state, and sometimes they want their own Greater Rayalaseema. Since, that is not clear to me, I kept that as a separate region.

    It is also being argued that Telangana is developed by looking at the development in and around Hyderabad; I divided Telangana as Telangana with HYD and Telangana without HYD. This is to insist that “Developed Hyderabad does not represent developed Telangana”.

    This is not to interpret the CESS report for wrong reasons, since Cess report is considered to be more genuine and unbiased; it is being used to study the genuine differences. Also, this report does not cover other aspects of Telangana movement, like Political, cultural and employment in-differences.

    Objectives of the Report:

    1. To obtain information on where Telangana as a region stands, in terms of development, compared to whole AP and Andhra region

    2. An attempt to get facts to all those who argue, without any basis, on the development of Telangana

    3. To recognize the existence of genuine regional imbalances between Telangana and Andhra, in terms of development, whether these imbalances are a result of organized discrimination or not is secondary, but first of all, everyone should recognize the underdevelopment of Telangana compared to Andhra region

    4. To show that, Hyderabad alone is developed exponentially, but not the rest of the Telangana.

    2. Statistics and Analysis

    2.1 Human Development Index (HDI):

    CESS Definition of HDI:

    The concept of development has been extended to be more comprehensive and go beyond the mere material dimension of increase in per capita income, complemented by the non-material dimensions (like levels of education, status of health and access to basic amenities). Thus development, apart from income, relates to general well-being and economic capabilities of the people.

    The Planning Commission of India considered the following indicators for three dimensions of HDI in NHDR: literacy rate (7+ years of age) and adjusted intensity of formal education for education, life expectancy at age one and infant mortality rate (IMR) for health, and consumption expenditure (per capita per month) for command over resources (NHDR, 2001). Each of these parameters are analyzed separately in the later part of this report

    Table 1: Human Development Index (HDI) in different regions (Higher the value, better the situation)

     

    Overall AP

    Coastal Andhra

    Telangana(w. HYD)

    Telangana(w/o HYD)

    Rayalaseema

    Early 1990s

    0.402

    0.4008

    0.3998

    0.378

    0.392

    Early 2000s

    0.537

    0.54667

    0.5393

    0.519

    0.50625

     Interpretation: In this Table, though the absolute values seem to be very close to each other, we have to see the net difference between these smaller values. There is definitely difference between the regions. Since the indicators considered are smaller in absolute values, these differences look small. For those, who have been arguing that Telangana(with HYD) is more developed than Coastal Andhra, the statistics show that Coastal Andhra is more developed than Telangana (w. HYD), though they don’t have a capital city in the region. If the comparison is Telangana (w/o HYD), the difference is higher.

    Obviously, this difference trickles down to the rural areas when they compare their life style with the other regional counter parts. I believe, this is the main reason for a stronger Telangana movement in rural areas.

    2.2 Human Poverty Index (HPI)

    CESS Definition:

    While the HDI measures the overall progress in achieving human development, the HPI measures the distribution of progress through the level of deprivation. The broad dimension by which this deprivation is measured is the same as those of HDI – health, knowledge and standard of living – but there is a slight variation in the indicators. Moreover the level of deprivation is the yardstick for measurement while achievement levels are considered for HDI. Therefore, the indicators taken are as follows: adult illiteracy rate and percentage of children not attending school for education; infant mortality rate for health; and percentage of household not having access to basic amenities like drinking water, housing, sanitation, cooking fuel and electricity for command over resources

     Table 2: Human Poverty Index (HPI) in different regions (Lower the values, Better the situation)

     

    Overall AP

    Coastal Andhra

    Telangana(w. HYD)

    Telangana(w/o HYD)

    Rayalaseema

    Early 1990s

    0.583

    0.616

    0.5714

    0.609

    0.60725

    Early 2000s

    0.469

    0.485

    0.4613

    0.488

    0.48025

    Interpretation: The difference of HPI between the regions is not high. Hyderabad helped Telangana in this calculation, by reducing the HPI value in the region. But, rest of the Telangana is almost equivalent to Coastal Andhra & Rayalaseema

    2.4 Different aspects of Development – Individually

    Each parameter of the development is looked into, individually, to observe the statistics more closely, in the following tables.

    2.4.1 Income Dimension of HDI

    Table 4: Per capita GDDP (Higher the value, better the situation)

     

    Overall AP

    Coastal Andhra

    Telangana(w. HYD)

    Telangana(w/o HYD)

    Rayalaseema

    1993 – 1994

    7416

    7540

    7062

    6993

    7553

    2004 – 2005

    11756

    11963

    11818

    11381

    9968

    There is a clear difference across the regions, in terms of per capita Gross District Domestic Product. Reader has to observe that, the GDDP in Coastal Andhra is higher than Telangana with Hyderabad. Telangana without Hyderabad is further lower compared to Telangana (w. Hyd). So, this income dimension is clearly felt across all sections of the people. This also proves that there is not a much of dependency on Hyderabad, from Andhra region. They will still be able to maintain the same level of income, even without Hyderabad being part of their region

    Table 5: Growth of Gross District Domestic Product (GDDP)

     

    Overall AP

    Coastal Andhra

    Telangana(w. HYD)

    Telangana(w/o HYD)

    Rayalaseema

    1993-1994

    5.7

    5.3777

    6.22

    5.977

    4.4

    2004-2005

    4.3

    4.3333

    4.57

    4.3666

    2.925

     Table 6: Growth of per capita District Domestic Product (DDP) in Rs.

     

    Overall AP

    Coastal Andhra

    Telangana (w. HYD)

    Telangana(w/o HYD)

    Rayalaseema

    1991

    840

    842

    820

    810

    842

    2001

    1300

    1325

    1309

    1259

    1083

     Interestingly, though the development of GDDP is similar across the regions, the Net value of the growth in Rs. is clearly different. These Net differences in the income & income growth are felt in Telangana region across all sections of people

    2.4.2 Health Dimension of HDI Table 7: Infant Mortality Rate (Lower the value, better the situation)

     

    Overall AP

    Coastal Andhra

    Telangana(w. HYD)

    Telangana(w/o HYD)

    Rayalaseema

    1991

    49

    50

    46

    48

    52

    2001

    43

    42

    40

    42

    45

    Health dimension (Infant mortality) seems to be equal across the region. Though, there were differences in 1991 and Telangana had an edge then, Andhra region caught up by 2001. This is a good sign.

    Table 8: Health Facility Available per ten lakh population, 2004-05

     

    Overall AP

    Coastal Andhra

    Telangana(w. HYD)

    Telangana(w/o HYD)

    Rayalaseema

    Hospitals

    4

    4

    4.9

    4.66

    4.25

    PHCs

    20

    20.889

    19.1

    21.22

    22

    Beds

    449

    399.222

    467.6

    345.44

    423.75

    Dispensaries

    3

    3.6666

    2.4

    1.111

    2.75

    Doctors

    92

    83.111

    85

    57.2222

    99.5

    Contract Doctors

    9

    8.6666

    10.2

    10.77777

    10

    All Doctors

    101

    91.5555

    95.2

    68

    109.5

     Though, there are slightly higher number of hospitals and PHCs, there is a substantial difference in number of doctors compared to other regions. I don’t think number of facilities would help the population without enough staff

    2.4.3 Education Dimension of HDI

    The differences in education dimension seem to be very high and Telangana region did not catch up with the Andhra & Rayalaseema in any of the following areas of education dimension. This should have been primarily the Government’s responsibility to realize differences amongst the regions and the backward regions should have been taken care with utmost importance.

    Table 9: Percentage of Children 5-14 Age group Attending School (Higher the value, better the situation)

     

    Overall AP

    Coastal Andhra

    Telangana(w. HYD)

    Telangana(w/o HYD)

    Rayalaseema

    1991

    49.12

    50.24

    47.22

    44.7

    50.17

    2001

    73.8

    75.02

    73.46

    72.82

    72.9

     Table 10: Literacy Rate for 7+ yrs Children (Higher the value, better the situation)

     

    Overall AP

    Coastal Andhra

    Telangana(w. HYD)

    Telangana(w/o HYD)

    Rayalaseema

    1981

    29.9

    31.61

    26.22

    22.65

    30.2

    1991

    44

    44.73

    40.48

    37.03

    45.025

    2001

    60.5

    62.13

    57.18

    54.77

    59.725

    Table 11: Adult literacy is for the age group 15 years and above (Higher the value, better the situation)

     

    Overall AP

    Coastal Andhra

    Telangana(w. HYD)

    Telangana(w/o HYD)

    Rayalaseema

    1991

    38.3

    39.27

    34.5

    30.74

    38.775

    2001

    54.2

    55.88

    50.07

    47.06

    53.3

     Table 12: Literacy rate for the age group of 15+ yrs, in 2001

     

    Overall AP

    Coastal Andhra

    Telangana(w. HYD)

    Telangana(w/o HYD)

    Rayalaseema

     
    Non-Literatue

    45.8

    44.12

    49.94

    52.93333

    46.7

    Lower the better

    LRP+

    44.4

    45.0111

    41.18

    37.91

    44.675

    Higher the better

    LMD+

    28.7

    26.9666

    29.64

    26.51

    26.675

    Higher the better

    LRP+: Literate person with education level primary and above

    LMD+: Literate person with education level middle and above

    The incidence of Non-Literate people is higher in Telangana region compared to the other regions.

     Table 13: Drop-out Rate in Primary and Upper Primary Stages, 2005 (lower the value, better the situation)

     

    Overall AP

    Coastal Andhra

    Telangana(w. HYD)

    Telangana(w/o HYD)

    Rayalaseema

    Class I to V

    27.04

    19.34

    33.08

    33.88

    18.57

    Class I to VII

    43.22

    40.59

    43.82

    47.55

    35

    It is highly important to note the difference in dropout rates. Telangana is definitely neglected in this case in terms of curbing the dropout rate. Again, this falls under Government’s responsibility to concentrate on the backward region and ensure effective implementation of Govt. schemes.

    2.4.4 Agriculture Dimension of HDI

    Agriculture being the main occupation for the people across all regions, it is a MAJOR indicator of the backwardness. This is one of the major indicators of the backwardness of Tealangana. These differences are genuinely felt across, because of the fact that Agriculture is the main occupation for the people of all regions.

    Table 14: Percentage of Irrigated Area by Different sources, 2004 – 2005

     

    Overall AP

    Coastal Andhra

    Telangana(w. HYD)

    Telangana(w/o HYD)

    Rayalaseema

    % in Net Sown Area

    Canals

    12.9

    27.86

    2.665

    3.65

    Tanks & Others

    6.1

    12.85

    4.45

    1.775

    Wells

    18.2

    13.1

    28.98

    17.35

    Total

    37.2

    53.82

    36.12

    22.775

    % of wells in Net Irrigated Area

    49.1

    24.4

    80.07

    74.175

    Other wells in Total wells

    34.1

    27.91

    36.98

    22.6

     Though the major rivers, Krishna & Godawari enter Telangana first, the percentage of Net sown area is much less in Telangana compared to Andhra. This is due to several reasons some interdependent.

    Farmers of Telangana region are dependent more on Wells/Borewells,(due to the non-availibility of canal systems) Andhra region is dependent more on Canals & Tanks which allows for a larger cultivable land as compared to well irrigation. There are regions in Telangana where people sold some of their lands to dig Wells/Bore Wells. Telangana is completely dependent on Electricity to get water out from the wells, they have to pay the electricity bills without fail, till 2004, whereas, people from Andhra have to pay nominal water tax for canal water. Higher bills for digging wells & electricity mean higher production cost for the crop. Though, both the regions grow similar crops, one region’s production cost is always higher than the other region. But, the final crop goes to the same markets and both get the same price. At the same time, irregular supply of power for the agriculture sector & higher production cost caused many losses to the farmers of Telangana, especially in 1990s. This triggered the spate of farmers’ suicides in Telangana region. These suicides were witnessed by the younger generation of the region.

     Subsequent Governments, since the formation of Andhra Pradesh, should have concentrated on developing the irrigation projects in Telangana region, to make sure that those differences are balanced.

    Table 15: Share of the Value of Crop Output and Livestock in the GDDP and their Growth across Districts

     

    Overall AP

    Coastal Andhra

    Telangana(w. HYD)

    Telangana(w/o HYD)

    Rayalaseema

    Crop output

    1993 -1994

    24.6

    27.51

    N.A

    21.2

    33.08

    2003 – 2004

    14.2

    16.72

    N.A

    14.41

    16.83

    Livestock

    1993 -1994

    5.5

    5.61

    N.A

    3.57

    5.62

    2003 – 2004

    7.4

    7.5

    N.A

    6.68

    8.65

    Agriculture

    1993 -1994

    30.1

    33.12

    N.A

    25.85

    38.67

    2003 – 2004

    21.6

    24.21

    N.A

    21.57

    25.42

    Growth (1993 – 2004)

    Crop

    1.3

    1.28

    N.A

    3.2

    0.925

    Livestock

    5.8

    5.34

    N.A

    7.06

    5.75

    Agriculture

    0.61

    0.64

    N.A

    0.947

    0.645

    1. The Data considered here is components of Gross District Domestic Product (GDDP)

    2. Crop output includes value of output from all the agriculture and allied activities excluding livestock

    3. Growth is exponential growth rate

     Again, this table is interesting to observe. Differences in Crop output, Live Stock & other Agricultural products are not huge. But, the NET income to the farmers has always been lower for Telangana region due to higher investment (production cost) as explained by reasons above.. That difference in income is clearly visible in the Table below.

    Table 16: Per Capita Gross District Domestic Product per Worker Agricultural (Aggregate Value ofCorp) output across Districts 

     

    Overall AP

    Coastal Andhra

    Telangana(w. HYD)

    Telangana(w/o HYD)

    Rayalaseema

    Per Capita GDDP

    N/A

    18337

    16961

    15192

    Per Worker Agril. Output

    N/A

    13370

    8990

    8493

    Per Hectare Agril. Output

    N/A

    33007

    20235

    15337

    2.4.5 Other Dimensions of Human Development

    Table 17: Infrastructure Index, in 2004

     

    Overall AP

    Coastal Andhra

    Telangana

    (w. HYD)

    Telangana

    (w/o HYD)

    Rayalaseema

    Population Density

    277

    368.55

    1997.8

    257.88

    201.5

    Road Density

    666

    761.66

    710

    682.33

    582.5

    Percentage of Gross Irrigated Area to the Gross Cropped Area

    39.8

    51.43

    34.99

    38.87

    25.92

    Power – Percentage of Villages connected with Electricity

    100

    99.888

    99.95

    99.94

    99.82

    Bank – Number of (Commercial) Bank Branches available per lakh Population;

    7.08

    7.21

    6.897

    5.94

    6.411

    TP – Number of Telephone connection per lakh Population;

    4121

    4559

    4455

    3548

    3258

    PO – Number of Post Offices per lakh Population;

    21

    23

    19.3

    21

    26

    Composite Index (unweighted) of seven indicators mentioned above

    1

    1.138

    1.871

    0.945

    0.88

    Index includes above seven plus two more indicators representing education and health infrastructure.

    1

    1.068

    0.983

    0.936

    0.958

    All the parameters observed in this Table, Andhra region is higher than the AP state’s average, and it is more advanced than Telangana with Hyderabad. When Telangana (w.o. HYD) is compared, the differences are much higher. Though, the major economic capital, Hyderabad, is in Telangana region, Road density is higher in Andhra region. If not all of the above, Roads are completely in control of the State government, which neglected Telangana area in this regard.

     Table 18: Urbanization

     

    Overall AP

    Coastal Andhra

    Telangana

    (w. HYD)

    Telangana

    (w/o HYD)

    Rayalaseema

    1991

    26.9

    24.33

    28.83

    20.92

    23.275

    2001

    27.3

    23.44

    29.55

    21.72

    23.2

     Table 19: Degree of Urbanization

     

    Overall AP

    Coastal Andhra

    Telangana

    (w. HYD)

    Telangana

    (w/o HYD)

    Rayalaseema

    1961

    17.4

    16.6287

    16.9444

    13.40556

    15.325

    1971

    19.3

    18.625

    17.7333

    13.929

    16.45

    1981

    23.3

    21.87778

    24.66

    16.28889

    20.4

    1991

    26.9

    24.3333

    28.83

    20.92222

    23.275

    2001

    27.3

    23.44444

    29.55

    21.72222

    23.2

     The major contribution from Hyderabad to Telangana region is this Urbanization calculation. Since Hyderabad is considered as 100% Urbanized, Telangana (w. HYD) shows more urbanized than Andhra region. But, if Telangana (w.o HYD) is compared, there is not much difference. We have to remember the fact that, the same Hyderabad did not help Telangana in terms of Human Development in any other means.

    Table 20: Percentage of Households without selected Basic Amenities, 1991-2001

     

    Overall AP

    Coastal Andhra

    Telangana(w. HYD)

    Telangana(w/o HYD)

    Rayalaseema

    Dwelling

    1991

    49.9

    59.05555

    37.81

    38.777

    56.25

    2001

    50.9

    39.38889

    57.55

    57.7111

    59.075

    Tap Water

    1991

    75.6

    79.52

    72.45

    78.48

    72.6

    2001

    51.9

    44.54

    49.27

    49.27

    77.05

    Toilet

    1991

    81.6

    83.85556

    77.27

    84.4889

    86.975

    2001

    67

    63.75556

    68.25

    70.06667

    76.25

    Traditional Fuel

    1991

    84.5

    85.1

    80.14

    87.88889

    92.65

    2001

    73.1

    67.95556

    77.22

    78.95556

    76.75

    Electricity

    1991

    53.7

    61.24444

    47.97

    52.2333

    46.4

    2001

    32.8

    29.38889

    31.54

    32.1667

    45.875

     Dwelling – Percentage of households with one or none dwelling rooms; Tap Water – Percentage of households without tap water for drinking; Electricity – Percentage of households without electricity connection; Toilet – Percentage of households without toilet facility; Traditional Fuel – Percentage of households using traditional fuel for cooking including fire wood, charcoal, etc.

     Numbers in this Table are another true representation of discrimination. Whether it is organized OR unorganized is a different argument, but these are the very basic necessities that people feel difference in. To observe, the very fact that the numbers in Telangana region for Dwelling have increased from 1991 to 2001 is very saddening. There is more number of people in Telangana without the access to Tap Water & Toilet. This situation is not at all acceptable. People who use fire wood and charcoal are more in Telangana region.

    Interesting observation on this is Table is, growth rate in Andhra region in all these parameters is more than Telangana, during the period of observation (1991-2001). The only exception, Telangana shows better percentages in Electricity.

    When people of Telangana compare their standard of living with that of Andhra region, they can clearly feel the difference within these factors.

    3. Conclusions

    A. Cannot discount the existence of regional disparities

    B. Statistical evidence shows that Telangana region is behind Andhra region, in-terms of every aspect of development

    C. Hyderabad, being part of Telangana, did not help the region in terms of development. It should be noted that “Developed Hyderabad is not a Developed Telangana”

    D . Most of the data collected by CESS for this report is from early 1990s to early 2000s. Differences in this period are felt strongly by the younger (10 – 20 yrs age) generation of that decade. I believe this is the reason for the large participation of youth (20 – 30 yrs) in the present Telangana movement. When they compare their standard of living of the same age group in other regions, they obviously feel the differences

    Reference:

    CESS Report can be found here:http://undp.org.in/sites/default/files/reports_publication/Andhra.pdf

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